Economics Syllabus 8th, 9th & 10th
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Meaning of Economics: Importance of the study of the economics, economic activities,
production activities, consumption activities, exchange activities, distribution activities,
production-factors of production [land, labour, physical capital, human capital]
Natural Resources: Scarcity of resources, meaning of renewable and non-renewable
resources, meaning of deforestation and desertification, meaning of carrying capacity
climate change-factors influencing the climate, consequences of climate change,
prevention of climate changes.
Human Resources: Meaning of human resources, people has resources, population
growth, demographic transition- stages [Backward stage, developing stage, developed
stage] reproductive health quality and population.
Poverty and hunger: Who are poor, indicators of poverty, extent of poverty in India
[percentage] hunger and family, food security and eradication of poverty- measures or
economic development measures, implementation of specific poverty, provision of
minimum basic requirements and social security measures.

Economic structure: Meaning of structural transformation; Source of income; Source of
employment; Meaning of static and dynamic economy.
Sectors of Indian Economy : Meaning of primary sector , Secondary sector ,Tertiary
sector; Primary sector - Importance of agricultural sectors ; Secondary sector - Public
sector, Private sectors, Multinational companies(MNC's),Importance of Industrial sector
;Tertiary sector - Banks, Insurance, Transport , Communication, Health ,Education ;
Contribution of different sectors to National Incomes; Karnataka economy - Agriculture,
Horticulture ,Floriculture in Karnataka, Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development ,
Fisheries , Industries ,Banking, Tourism, Power, Transport(Road, Railways, Water,
Air),Communication, Health and Education.
Money and Credit:- Meaning of money ,Evolution of money ,Meaning of Barter System ,
commodity money , Metallic money , Paper money , Bank money , Credit and Debit
Card; Functions of money: Primary functions ,Secondary functions and Contingent
functions ; Forms of credit : Informal credit sector, Formal credit; Banks and deposits,
Importance of Banks , Types of Banks: Industrial banks , Exchange Banks, Saving
Banks , Co-operative Banks and Land mortgage Banks ; Meaning of deposits of
commercial banks, Current account deposits, Saving deposits, Fixed deposits ;
Reserve Bank of India ; Functions of RBI : Monopoly of note issue, ACTS as banker to
Government , Bankers Bank , Acts as National clearing house, Acts as the controller of
credit, Custodian of Foreign Exchange reserves, Publishes the economic statistics and
other information, Promotion of Banking habits , Facilities of Agriculture.
Labour and Employment- Meaning of Labour , Features of Labour, Importance of
Labour ,Types of Labour, Division of Labour: Advantages and Disadvantages of
division of labour; Gender dimension of labour , Meaning of productive Labour ,
Reproductive Labour, Abolition of Bonded Labour , Abolition of Child Labour;
Employment, Unemployment, NSSO classification: Usual status, Weekly status, Daily
status; Meaning of Youth Unemployment, Types of Unemployment, Disguised
Unemployment , Seasonal Unemployment, Voluntary Unemployment.
Development-Meaning & nature of Development- indicators of Income developmentindicators
of human development-Gender related development
Economy & government-Planning in India- History of Planning- Five year plansAchievements
of Five year plans- Green revolutionRural
development- Meaning of rural development- importance- decentralization- role of
Panchayat raj institutions- women in development
Public finance & Budget- Meaning & importance of Public finance- Budget- Public
expenditure- Capital expenditure- Public revenue- Capital receipts- Fiscal defecit

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