BIOLOGY  Syllabus for Graduate Primary School Teachers for Classes 6 to 8

Paper II
 Living World: Characteristics of Living Organisms: Plants, Animals and microbes.
 Life processes in plants: Transpiration, osmosis, diffusion, active transport, translocation of
food and water, mechanism of opening and closing of stomata; theories, guttation, heories of
water transportation, Trophic movements-photo, geo, thigmo, hydro.
Photosynthesis-Factors affecting photosynthesis., Light and Dark reaction, Respiration
(Aerobic and anaerobic), Factors affecting respiration, Cellular respiration steps (Glycolosis
and Krebs cycle), Growth. Growth curve, Growth hormones, Factors affecting Growth,
Experiments on plants growth. Reproduction (Vegetative, Asexual and sexual in detail.)
Parthenocarpy in plants.
 Reaching the age of adolescence: Changes at Puberty, Role of hormones in initiating
reproductive function, Sex determination, types of hormones
 Life process in animals: Movement, Respiration, Circulation (heart. blood. blood vessels),
Digestion (in detail), Excretion (in detail), Control and co-ordination(Glands-exocrine and
endocrine). Sense organs in human beings-in detail
 Natural resources: Meaning, Types, Classification, Importance of soil(types), forest(forest
ecosystem, diversity in forest),fossil fuels(different types),water, minerals and conservation.
 Food: Meaning, importance, Nutrients. Components of food-types, functions, examples.
Simple tests for Carbohydrates, fats and lipids Concept of balanced diet, deficiency diseases
– Why do we fall ill? – Health and hygiene, diseases and their causes, types of diseases -
infectious and non-infectious, prevention of diseases, Immunisation., Adulteration of food-
Meaning, causes, effects, Tests to find out some common adulteration of food (Act regarding
 Ecology: Components (biotic, abiotic), biomes-types. Interaction between biotic and abiotic
 Soil erosion: Meaning, causes, effects, soil conservation methods.
 Pollution: meaning, types (Air, Water. soil, Sound, radioactive), causes, effects, controlling
 Water: Importance, management, rain water harvesting, conservation.
 Green house effect: Meaning, importance, green house gases, Global warming-causes,
 Eco system: Components, trophic levels, food chain, food web, Ecological pyramids,
importance. Biological fixation of nutrients.
 Cytology: Plant cell and animal cell-Differences, Cell organelles, functions, Cell division
(mitosis and meiosis)
 Classification of organisms: 2,3,4,5 kingdom classification., Detailed study of monera,
protista, Mycota, Plantae & animalia. , Hirerchy of clasification and examples.
 Micro Organisms Types (Virus, Bacteria, Fungus, Protozoans), Beneficial and harmful
micro organisms, Examples (Common diseases caused by them).
 Evolution: Theories (Theory of natural selection, Use and dis use theory), Darwinism, Neo
Darwinism. Evidences of evolution like - Fossil, homologues, analogues, embryological.
Human Evolution. (complete study)
 Plant kingdom: Algae, Fungi, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta, gymnosperms, and Angiosperms
Ecological importance.
 Tissues (Plants and Animals) in detail: Meaning, Types, Function of tissues .
 Genetics: Heredity- Mendel’s laws of Inheritance, Mono hybrid and Di-hybrid cross, test
cross, In complete dominance, Co-dominance, D.N.A. Double helix model,
 Tissue culture - process, applications. Genetically modified organisms (plants and animals),
Transgenic animals.

 Bio Technology: Principles, Application in Agriculture, Medicine, - Cloning, DNA
fingerprint technology, tissue culture, genetic engineering, recombinant DNA technology,
tests-elisa, PCR,western blot, harmful effects and ethical issues.
 Animal resources: Sericulture (In detail), Dairy (In detail), Poultry (In detail), Vermiculture
(In detail), pisiculture, (in detail), apiculture.

Exam Structure
Section 1 – Multiple Choice Questions
Marks – 50
Duration – 1 hour
Section 2 - Short and Long answer type questions
Marks – 100
Duration – 2 hours

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