Syllabus for Graduate Primary School Teachers for Classes 6 to 8

Paper II
 Measurement, Units and dimensions: Fundamental and derived units, fundamental forces
in nature, Measurement of longer distance objects like sun, planets etc, measurement of very
small distances like size of atom , errors , types of errors, significant figures.
 Magnetism: Magnetic field, properties of magnet, Biot-savart’s law, Ampere’s circuital lawapplications,
magnetic lines of force-properties. Solenoid , toroid, Cyclotron – applications,
Force on current carrying conductors, Magnetic materials- types and examples.
Electromagnets , factors affecting their strength, permanent magnets.
 Current Electricity: Electric current, Drift velocity, mobility, Ohm’s law, electrical
resistance, resistivity, conductivity, electrical power. Carbon resistors , colour codes of
carbon resistors, series and parallel combi9nation of resistors. Cell- Internal resistance,
potential difference, emf , series and parallel combination. Kirchhoff’s laws. Wheat stone
bride, potentiometer, meter bridge principle and applications.
 Dynamics: Scalars and vectors meaning and examples, Displacement, Distance travelled,
speed, velocity, acceleration units and problems. Newton’s three laws of motion and
illustrations. Inertia, Force, work, momentum units and problems. Circular motioncentripetal
force, centrifugal reaction and applications. Position and displacement vectors,
resolution of vectors, scalar and vector product of vectors. Friction , laws of friction, types
of friction, factors affecting friction, methods of increasing and reducing friction. Centre of
mass, momentum of force, torque, angular momentum. Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rotational
motion, moment of inertia.
 Gravitation & Rockets and artificial satellites :Meaning, acceleration due to gravity,
variation of acceleration due to gravity on the earth. Newton’s law of gravitation, Weight,
weightlessness. Principle, fuel, payload, Different stages, Launching of rockets. Escape
velocity, orbital velocity, communication satellites, geo-stationary satellites. ISROprograms,
moon mission, MOM.
 Thermodynamics. Heat and temperature meaning and differences. Different scales of
measurement of temperature and inter conversions. Laws of thermodynamics, Isothermal and
adiabatic process, reversible and irreversible process. Heat engines- different types, petrol and
diesel engine, efficiency of heat engine- problems, refrigerators –principle and working
 Optics: Properties of light,. Mirrors , different types of mirrors and image formation, mirror
formula, uses. Lenses , image formation in different types of lenses at different object position,
power of lens Uses. Refraction and dispersion of light through prism .Phenomenon and laws
of reflection and refraction. Dispersion of light, scattering of light, total internal reflection,
optical fibres –uses. Theories of light- Newton’s corpuscular theory, Huygen’s wave theory,
Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory, Max planck’s quantum theory, dual nature of light.
Raman effect, optical instruments : simple and compound microscope, telescope, binoculars -
magnifying powers. Polarisation –plane polarised light, polaroids and their uses, Application
in daily life
 Electromagnetic radiation:Meaning, examples, properties, uses of different electromagnetic
radiations. Photo electric effect, experimental facts about pef, Einstein/s explanation and
applications of Pef. Electromagnetic spectrum, Laser meaning , production, properties and
 Energy :Meaning different forms of energy, law of conservation of energy . Inter conversion
of energy from one form to another form. Power, Kinetic energy and potential energy
meaning , example and problems.
 Electronics and communication system: Conductors, insulators and semiconductors
meaning and examples. Energy bands in solids, Bias and types. Doping, dopants. p/n junction
diode, transistor, LED, Photodiode, Solar cell, Zener diode, Construction of simple circuits,
series and parallel combination of cells and bulbs. circuit symbols of components of circuits.
Superconductors, Fuse. Logic gates(AND, OR,NOT,NOR,NAND). Radio broadcastingreceiver
and transmitter, television broadcasting – transmitter and receiver, modulation, band
width of transmission medium, propagation of electromagnetic waves in space. Telephone,
Fax, Mobile, internet working and applications.

 Oscillations and waves: Periodic motion –period, frequency, displacement. Simple harmonic
motion - k.e and p.e, free, forced and damped oscillations, resonance. Wave motion,
Transverse and longitudinal waves,, Speed of wave motion. Sound waves, Echo’s.
Wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude of waves. Superposition of waves, reflection of
waves, standing waves in strings and pipes, fundamental mode and harmonics , beats, Doppler
 Modern physics: Atom, constituents of atom and their properties. Atomic no, mass no,
nuclear chain reaction, Nuclear fission , nuclear fusion and applications. Meaning , elements
possess radioactivity, α-decay. β –decay and ɤ-decay. Half-life and mean life period,
problems. Isotopes, Isotones, Isobars with ex. Atomic models – Rutherfold’s model, Bohr’s
model, Thomson model. Mass energy relation, mass defect, binding energy- problems.
 Universe : Horizon, Geocentric system, solar centric system, Constellations, Zodiac
constellations. Moon, different phases of moon. Formation of eclipses. Solar system, facts
about sun, planets and their satellites, asteroids, comets. Galaxy, types of galaxy, stars, life
cycle of different mass stars, Quasars, Pulsars, Stellar luminosity, temp of stars. Hubble’s law,
big bang theory. Kepler laws of planetary motion
 Friction : Meaning, types, causes, factors affecting friction, methods of increasing and
reducing friction, uses and effects of friction.
Sound: Sound waves, Echo’s. Wavelength, period, frequency, amplitude of waves. Infrasonic and
ultrasonic sound waves. Sonar, ultra sound scanner, their uses.

Exam Structure
Section 1 – Multiple Choice Questions
Marks – 50
Duration – 1 hour
Section 2 - Short and Long answer type questions
Marks – 100
Duration – 2 hours

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